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Abstract State of Oaxaca is considered one of the most diversi?ed areas in terms of ecosystems and species. Speci?cally with genus Ceratozamia, Oaxaca corresponds, along with Chiapas, to one of the states where diversi?cation of this genus occurred, so it is considered an area of speciation. Seven species of the genus Ceratozamia are reported for Oaxaca, two of which are considered endemic (Ceratozamia mixeorum and C. whitelockiana). Most of the populations of the different species have been reported from the Sierra Norte and one from the Sierra Sur. Recently, a small population of a putative new species of Ceratozamia was discovered at the Sierra Madre del Sur. The population of the putative new species, which is in process of review and description, grows in an area of cloud forest. Forty-?ve individuals were recorded in a 3250 m2 plot (65 - 50 m), which showed a congregated distribution (X2 = 3856.3, p < 0.001, 33 gl, a = 0.05). Class structure distribution exhibited type I. From this pattern, we infer that a recruitment process exists. Even though this is a small population, it is considered established because: a) agricultural activities related with coffee plantations have not impacted this population and b) few indigenous people practice handcraft or horticulture with this species. In all the state, Ceratozamia is used as an insecticide, ornamental, and for ritual.