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Beetle accessions from more than 70 cycad populations were examined for the weevil genus Rhopalotria. Areas covered include Florida, the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, Colombia, and Central America from Panama to Mexico. This genus is known to breed only in the male cones of the cycad genera Dioon and Zamia. One record from Ceratozamia is believed to be erroneous. The sister genu Parallocorynus is treated here as a junior synonym of Rhopalotria, and seven species groups are recognized herein: (1) the dimidiata? group"on Zamia in Florida, some islands of the Bahamas and the Greater Antilles, and in Mexico and Belize, with one species also on Dioon spinulosum in Mexico; (2) the bicolor group on Dioon in eastern, western, and central Mexico; (3) the edule? group on the D. edule complex in Mexico; (4) the Honduras group with a single species on D. mejiae; (5) the western Panama group on two species of Zamia and extending into Costa Rica; (6) the eastern Panama group on four species of Zamia and extending into Colombia; and (7) the pseudoparasitica? group with a single species on the epiphytic Z. pseudoparasitica. These groups are distinguished by differences in their genitalia and features of their external structure concerning the forelegs, head, and rostrum, and many of these differences are attributed to differences in mating behavior.