Talisia is essentially an Amazonian genus, predominantly found in moist, non-flooded, primary forests on various types of soils. They are either treelets that inhabit the understory, or medium to large-sized trees that reach the canopy. Most species of Talisia have seeds with an edible sarcotesta, which has a slightly sour taste, that is consumed locally. Melicoccus contains ten species of trees with narrower ranges, naturally distributed in dry vegetation such as coastal forests, fields with sandy soils or less often in periodically flooded forests. Several species are cultivated for their edible fruits, and fruits of M. bijugatus are seasonally available in markets as far away as New York City. An alcoholic drink called "bili" is made in Vieques Island (Puerto Rico) by aging rum with this species' fruits. This volume includes keys, descriptions, distribution maps, black and white illustrations, photographic images, and phylogenetic analyses.