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RICHARDSON, P. M. (New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458, USA) Flavonoid chemistry and the taxonomy of cycads. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden 57: 132"141. 1990. The llavonoid chemistry of the cycads is comprehensively reviewed from a historical and taxonomic viewpoint. The chemistry and phylogeny of lower plants is discussed with a view to choice of an outgroup for phylogenetic analysis of the cycads based upon their Havonoid chemistry, using mainly C-glycosylflavones, biflavones and proanthocyanidins. Lack of variation within genera limits the resolution of resultant cladograms. Literature reports of other phenolic substances such as cinnamic acids and lignins are also discussed.
Keywords: cycads, biochemical systematics, flavonoids, tannins, lignins, cladistics