Cavendishia (Vacciniaceae) is a genus of epiphytic and terrestrial shrubs with approximately 150 species. It is one of the most easily recognizable vaccinioid genera in the Neotropics because of its bright, showy flowers and enlarged floral bracts. This treatment re-evaluates the genus Cavendishia (29 taxa) in Mexico and Central America alone. Most of these species have narrow distributional ranges. Many are restricted to single mountain ranges or geologic formations, and several are endemic to a single peak. Included are keys, descriptions, distribution maps, black and white illustrations, images of type collections of the taxa treated, and a Wagner Tree reflecting their evolutionary relationships.