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Abstract The Western Ghats of India has been identi?ed as one of the hotspots of the world and a center of biodiversity. Linnaeus established the genus Cycas and its type species C. circinalis from the illustrations of Van Rheede™s Todda Panna. Rheede™s locality of Todda Panna falls within the limits of Western Ghats. We extensively explored all the existing populations of Cycas in southern Western Ghats during 2001"2004 and identi?ed several morphological, anatomical, reproductive, and cytological distinctions within the populations of these areas of the Western Ghats. Consequently, we identified and described a new species, Cycas annaikalensis R. Singh & P. Radha, from the Palaghat range. This chapter describes the characteristic features of C. circinalis L., its distribution, and its comparison with C. annaikalensis as described from the Malabar Coast. An attempt has been made to discuss the specific limitations of C. circinalis, to solve the Indian Cycas taxonomy.