This title is monograph 76 in the Flora Neotropica series. Pavonia is the largest genus of the Malvaceae, the mallow family. There are more than 250 species worldwide, 224 of which are found in the Americas. This monograph of the neotropical members of this diverse genus summarizes what is known about their taxonomic history, morphology, distribution, cytology, pollination and dispersal, and more. The author describes 24 new species and makes or proposes 21 new combinations or names. The book includes botanical illustrations, distribution maps, and identification keys.